Legal Framework for Higher Education
The overall aims of Colleges and Universities are defined by the legislation and plenary decisions. The transition to a market economy and the decentralization of education imposed the demand for a legal and institutional framework necessary for the good activity of educational institutions and their evaluation. The legal framework lays down the structure and organization of higher education, the responsibilities for running them, and their sources of funding.
The Educational Development Conception, the Law on Education and other legislative acts form the legal background for the reform of the educational sector.
The State educational policy is defined by the fundamental objectives of education stipulated in the legislative acts: Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, Educational Development Conception, and Law on Education.
The overall right to education is stipulated in the main document of the country, in the Constitution, art. 35 “The Right of Access to Education”, which follows below:
“(1) The right of access to education is put into effect through the compulsory comprehensive public school system, lyceum (public secondary school) and vocational education, as well as the higher education system, and other forms of instruction and training.
State public education is free.
All educational institutions, including those that are not financed by the state, shall be established and function under the rule of law.
Higher education institutions have the right to be autonomous.
(7) The access to lyceum, vocational and higher education is equally open to all and is based on personal merit.”
One of the basic documents ensuring the reforms and development of the national educational system is the National Educational Development Program that defines the educational strategies for the future.
National HEIs organize their activity in conformity with the next laws:
Law on Education adopted in 1995; Law on Evaluation and Accreditation of Educational Institutions in the Republic of Moldova adopted in 1997; Law on the approval of the List of Specializations for higher educational institutions adopted in 2000; Law on the adjustment and completion of the Supplement to the Law on the approval of the List of Specialization adopted in 2000 and The Supplement List of Specializations adopted in 2001; Law on the licensing of some types of activity adopted in 2001.
The Law On Education also confirms the right to education and guarantees equal opportunities for admission to higher education.
The national standards establish the requirements for various ‘ levels and stages of education. The Government is responsible for their elaboration and implementation. Educational standards form the basis of the educational system and provide platform for the recognition of national Diploma and Certificates.