Research in the Higher Education System
The scientific research in universities is guided by the Supreme Council of Research and Technological Development of Moldova, The funds come mainly from the following sources: budget, contracts with companies, and international grants. The Supreme Council of Research and Technological Development distributes the funds coming from budget taking into account the national priorities of the country. Starting from 2000, a part of funds is distributed via open national competition. The Supreme Council of Research and Technological Development also supports the organization of national and international scientific conferences, workshops, and seminars. Research laboratories belonging to different departments represent the main research units at universities. The research work is usually guided by the heads of the departments or by other qualified professors. The research groups are formed taking into account the interest of the personnel and the funds available.
Graduate and postgraduate research is an important component of the scientific activity at universities. Usually the research work starts with the preparation of the graduating paper, and continues subsequently during one master’s course year. Then the students may pass an examination to get the position of postgraduate students for 3 or 4 years. During this period the students should pass several exams and work on their Ph.D. theses.
The defense of the thesis is organized by specialized Scientific Councils consisting of recognized experts in the field. In the Republic of Moldova there are two levels of scientific degrees, namely Doctors and Doctors habilitate of Science. Both Doctors and Doctors habilitate with experience in teaching may become university professors, while Doctors habilitate contributing considerably to the development of science may become also members of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova.
Basic research is usually funded by budget sources or via international grants. Contract research with enterprises is oriented to applications. Nowadays there is a pronounced tendency to form interdepartmental research units working on interdisciplinary issues. The Supreme Council of Research and Technological Development supports the creation of national centers of excellence in the priority fields of research and technological development of Moldova. Responsible for the implementation of the research results are the corresponding ministries in case of the financial support from the budget.